Internal Revenue Code Section 152 defines a dependent for tax exemption purposes. If parents are divorced or separated with a written Separation Agreement, or live apart during the last six months of the calendar year, and if a child or children are in the custody of one of the parents for more than one-half of the calendar year, that parent may take the dependency exemption for each of those children.
In many cases, parties who are divorcing reach an agreement as to who may take the dependency exemption for their children in any given year. Sometimes they split the dependency exemptions between them if there are two or more children. For any divorce or agreement entered into from 2009 onward, if the custodial parent (parent having the children for the greater portion of taxable year) agrees to give the other parent an exemption in any given year, the custodial parent must sign a written declaration that the custodial parent will not claim such child as a dependent for said taxable year and the non-custodial parent must attach that declaration to his/her tax return. Prior to December 31, 2008, the non-custodial parent only had to attach the pages from his/her divorce decree or Separation Agreement to his/her tax return.
The form required now is IRS Form 8332 entitled “Release/Revocation of Release of Claim to Exemption for Child by Custodial Parent.” Said form may cover the exemption for more than one year.