Estate of Florence Schifftner, Deceased
If a will has been admitted to probate by the Surrogate’s Court, New Jersey Court Rule 4:85-1 allows a party four months to file a complaint to set it aside. However, if the complaint is not filed within the four month period, a party may seek relief under the “escape provision” of Rule 4:85-1 and file the complaint within a “reasonable time under the circumstances”. Under section (f) of New Jersey Court Rule 4:50, this relief can only be secured where there are exceptional, extraordinary and compelling grounds for such relief.
In The Matter of the Estate of Florence Schifftner, Deceased, decided on April 25, 2006, the Appellate Division of the New Jersey Superior Court dealt with the issue of whether an inability to afford counsel constitutes “exceptional, extraordinary and compelling grounds” and therefore a reason to allow a litigant to attack the probate of a will after the four month period.
The plaintiff in the Schifftner case was seeking to overturn a judgment admitting the will of his late mother to probate. The will had been probated after due notice to the plaintiff and he did not file an appeal. The plaintiff argued that although he was aware of the will being probated, he was unable to take appropriate action as his did not have sufficient funds at the time to hire an attorney. The Appellate Division concluded that indigence, under the circumstances of this case, was not an “extraordinary” reason justifying relief. The Court noted that it was an unfortunate fact that many litigants were unwilling to obtain, or unable to afford, representation. The Court went on to say that pro se litigants are allowed the same protection afforded to represented litigants and pro se litigants are given the right to be heard. The Court held that counsel is only required when a litigant faces a “consequence of magnitude” such as a criminal prosecution that threatens actual incarceration or the loss of a fundamental constitutional right such as an interference with the parental relationship.
The Court went on to say that where the consequences are less severe, the failure of representation is not fatal. The possibility of losing a civil suit does not implicate the need to have counsel. The plaintiff in Schifftner, having filed his complaint to overturn probate of a will more than four months after probate, was therefore not allowed to use the Rule 4:50 “escape provision” based upon the fact that he could not afford to hire a lawyer during the applicable time period.